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Image credit: © Phoenix Art Museum. All rights reserved. Photo by Ken Howie.
Unknown, Italy

Battle Between Romans and Carthaginians
not dated
ink on parchment
Credit Line:
Collection Phoenix Art Museum, Gift of the Carl S. Dentzel Family Collection
Object Number:
On view status (subject to change):
Not on view
Description: The drawing entered the collection with an attribution to Guilio Clovio (1498-1578), the major illuminated manuscript painter of the 16th century. The fact that the drawing is on parchment seemed to support this attribution, but its overall style does not. Additional features definitely disprove Clovio's authorship. The figure on the right, seen from the rear on horseback, and the figure with the raised sword are taken directly from Antonio Tempesta's engraving The Battle of the Amazon's, issude in 1600 in honor of the Papal Jubilee. Several other quotations, notably the mounted figure seen from the rear and location just left of center, are from Tempesta's Cavalry and Infantry Battle, from the thirs series of Battle Scenes and also from 1600. These borrowings date the drawing 20 years after Clovio's death. The inclusion of an elephant in the background of the drawing narrows its subject to a battle between the Romans and Carthaginians, quite likely part of the Second Punic War (218-201 B.C.). During this most famous of the three wars between Rome and Carthage for supremacy in the Mediterranean, the Carthaginian general Hannibal led an army of men and battle elephants from Spain across the Alps into Italy, where he won several victories. DUring the same was, the Roman general Scipio Africanus Major cpature New Carthage in Spain, and finally defeated Hannibal in Africa at the Battle of Zama (207 B.C). Scenes of Scipio's activities are foundin both Renaissance and Baroque art.
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